Citations, Plagiarism, Copyright


Citation formats may vary. The formats used at Marian University are the MLA Handbook and the APA Publication Manual. Ask your professor for the preferred choice. Writing Services, located on the second floor of the Administration Building, provides assistance to students with writing in all disciplines. With sufficient lead time, Writing Services Staff can provide feedback on your draft and help you with documentation.

A print copy of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.), is available at the library Reference Desk.  The manual has been reorganized and updated to include guidelines for referencing electronic resources.  The APA Website has also been updated to include the following tutorials:

The Basics of APA Style
What’s New in the Sixth Edition
APA Publication Manual, 6th ed., 1st. printing — Corrections (July 2009)
APA Publication Manual, 6th ed., 1st. printing — Corrected Sample Papers

The Chicago Manual of Style, used by history faculty and students, can be borrowed from the library in print.

Excelsior Online Writing Lab (OWL)

Writer’s Handbook

  • The University of Wisconsin–Madison’s online writing guide provides information on academic/research writing, peer reviews, documentation styles (APA, MLA, Chicago) and grammar as well as letter and application essays.


The following definition of Plagiarism is taken from the Marian University Academic Bulletin:

  • Plagiarism is presenting another person’s work as one’s own. Plagiarism also includes paraphrasing or summarizing the works of another person without acknowledgement, or taking any work, in whole or in part, including the Internet or other computer-based resource, without properly referencing the source.
  • Third-degree plagiarism is the occasional use of words or ideas from outside sources without documenting those sources. This includes failure to cite properly an Internet source. Consequences are at discretion of the instructor and may include an “F” on the paper or referral to the Writing Lab.
  • Second-degree plagiarism is extensive copying of words or ideas from outside sources without documentation. This includes submitting as one’s own part of a paper obtained from an Internet source. Possible penalties range from receiving an “F” on the assignment to receiving a grade of “F” for the course.
  • First-degree plagiarism is purchasing work done by another, having another person do the work, or submitting as one’s own a paper obtained from an Internet source. Possible penalties: The student may receive an “F” for the course, the student may be suspended from the college for one semester, or the student may be asked to leave Marian University permanently.


The following definition of Copyright and Fair Use is taken from the U.S. Copyright Office Web page. For further information on copyright, please follow the links listed below:

  • Copyright is a form of protection provided by the laws of the United States (title 17, U.S. Code) to the authors of “original works of authorship,” including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. Section 106 of the 1976 Copyright Act generally gives the owner of copyright the exclusive right to do and to authorize others to do the following:
    • To reproduce the work in copies or phonorecords.
    • To prepare derivative works based upon the work.
    • To distribute copies or phonorecords of the work to the public by sale or other transfer of ownership, or by rental, lease, or lending.
    • To perform the work publicly, in the case of literary, musical, dramatic, and choreographic works, pantomimes, and motion pictures and other audiovisual works.
    • To display the work publicly, in the case of literary, musical, dramatic, and choreographic works, pantomimes, and pictorial, graphic, or sculptural works, including the individual images of a motion picture or other audiovisual work.
    • In the case of sound recordings, to perform the work publicly by means of a digital audio transmission.
  • Fair Use: The fair use of a copyrighted work, including such use by reproduction in copies or phonorecords or by any other means specified by that section, for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship, or research, is not an infringement of copyright. In determining whether the use made of a work in any particular case is a fair use the factors to be considered shall include:
    • The purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes.
    • The nature of the copyrighted work.
    • The amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole.
    • The effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work.

Related Web sites:

Need Help?

Please ask for assistance at the Reference Desk. From off campus, call (920) 923-8096 or submit the online Ask A Reference Librarian form.

For online help using our databases, check out our Database Guides and Tutorials page.  Subject specific tutorials are available via Marian Online 2.  Your username is the first part of your Marian University email address — i.e. everything before “”  Your password is your Marian University email password.

For information on accessing databases from off-campus, see the Off-Campus Access page.