This course is designed to provide the student with the techniques and methods that can be utilized in order to ensure minimum radiation exposure to patients and occupationally exposed personnel.   The principles of ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) will be stressed in regards to non-occupationally and occupationally exposed individuals.  Design requirements for radiographic and fluoroscopic equipment in regards to radiation protection will be discussed as well. The course builds upon basic knowledge of atomic structure and bonding, cell structure, composition, and function for understanding the effects of ionizing radiation exposure on molecules including the DNA molecule, chromosomes, various types of cells, tissues, systems and ultimately the entire human body.