Dr. David Boers earned his Doctor of Education in Secondary Education from Ball State University, a Master of Science in Curriculum and Supervision from the University of Wisconsin – Oshkosh, and his Bachelor of Arts degree in English Education from the University of Wisconsin – Green Bay.
At Marian, Dr. Boers teaches a variety of courses in several programs including the DIAL Master’s Program, the Educational Leadership Master’s Program, and the Educational Leadership Doctoral Program. One DIAL course, entitled Current Perspectives in American Education, investigates the history and the evolution of contemporary education. Dr. Boers is also the lead teacher for DIAL courses Effective Schools Research: What Works and Effective Classroom Strategies and Practicesamong others. Doctoral Program courses include Sociocultural Concerns in Education and Leadership and Advanced Curriculum Theory.
Dr. Boers has a keen interest in the history of American education. His books, WISC, WISC 2, WISC 3 and The History of American Education describe his work in these areas. In addition, Dr. Boers’ research areas of interest include philosophy and techniques for encouraging discouraged learners. His books, Making the Difference, Happy Classrooms, and Lost and Found: The CARTIE Model for Reclaiming Students, describe his ideas and research regarding these topics. Recent research themes include issues regarding oppressed populations and, in particular, the plight of fugitive slaves. At present, Dr. Boers is working on his next book which will feature the freedom run of Wisconsin’s first identified fugitive slave.
Dr. Susan Bornstein-Forst came to Wisconsin in 1991 after completing NIH supported post-doctoral research at Sloan Kettering Memorial Hospital in New York City. Since her initial appointment at Marian University, Dr. Bornstein-Forst has pioneered more than 25 new courses and programming in biology. She has a strong track record of structured mentorship and has devoted her career to undergraduate research in applied microbiology. Her teaching pedagogy is based upon an inquiry-to-application approach using student-active learning. As a professor, she teaches upper level courses such as Bacteriology and Immunology, and typically provides pre-service training for 4-8 students/semester in her laboratory throughout the year. Dr. Bornstein-Forst has been awarded more than $3 million in federal grant funding including two grants from the National Institute for Health for research on microbial source tracking and for two TRiO programs supporting student achievement. From 2007-2012, Dr. Bornstein-Forst served as the principle investigator and Director of the first TRiO program at Marian, named the Ronald E. McNair Post-baccalaureate Achievement Program. Dr. Bornstein-Forst served as McNair Scholars Program Director from 2007-2012 and was the principle investigator on Marian’s first Upward Bound Math Science grant. Most recently, she was awarded two grants for a Bridge to Success workshop that provides pre-professional training to Fond du Lac area women. Dr. Bornstein-Forst is a recognized mentor for the American Society for Microbiology (ASM), the Society for Applied Microbiology (SfAM) and for the Society for Invertebrate Pathology (SIP). Many students who are trained at Marian receive fellowships from ASM and SfAM. These students have presented their findings on microbial contamination of food and water at international conferences in the U.S. and abroad. Dr. Bornstein-Forst has developed extensive academic-community partnerships with companies such as Monsanto, Miller Brewing, and Johnsonville Sausage, as well as with other academic institutions, including the Milwaukee School of Engineering, Marquette University, and Michigan State University. Many Marian students are participants in a National Science Foundation program for Connecting Researchers, Educators, Students, and Teachers (CREST) in which students learn how to build and use protein models. As an educator, administrator and researcher, Dr. Bornstein-Forst strives for the highest level of academic performance for her students and herself.
Scott Dell has served in the navy and is an experienced accountant (CPA), educator, entrepreneur, manager, learner, salesperson, technologist and business professional. Scott began his professional career in Boston with the Big 8 (now called the Big 4, the 4 largest accounting firms in the world) and brings a global perspective to his teaching, especially having traveled to four continents. His background includes teaching accounting, business and technology-related courses, as well as motorcycle safety (MSF) for Harley Davidson. He has experience owning, operating and growing businesses as well as educating many, helping students and peers learn and grow. With more than 20 years of college level teaching and 20 years of business experience, Dell helps his students to not only learn the content, but also to understand how the knowledge gained fits into the real world.
Dr. DePaoli earned a Doctor of Philosophy degree in Management from California Coast University, a Master’s in Business Administration from Notre Dame University, a Bachelor of Science in Humanistic Studies from the University of Wisconsin – Green Bay and a Bachelor of Science in Business from Saint Joseph’s University, Philadelphia. He achieved certification as a Senior Professional in Human Resources (SPHR), Lean Six Sigma Black Belt, Certified Purchasing Manager (C.P.M.), Accredited Purchasing Professional (A.P.P.), Certified E-commerce Consultant (CEC) and Certified Strategy and Change Consultant. DePaoli served for more than thirty years is the United States Navy Reserve reaching the rank of Captain. From 2005-2007, when on active duty, he led a Lean Six Sigma transformation at the Military Sealift Command. He is a qualified DOD instructor. He taught as an Adjunct Professor at Cardinal Stritch University since 1995. Additionally he has taught online courses at Phoenix and Walden University. Prior to joining Marian University Tom spent over ten years as an IT consultant-partner with companies such as IBM, Oracle and Commerce One. Tom held numerous positions at Kimberly Clark (Scott Paper) and Proctor and Gamble for 15 years. He is currently serving as a Sheboygan Falls YMCA Board member and has been heavily involved in coaching youth sports. He has authored several articles and delivered seminars for the Institute for Supply Management, among other organizations. He is a guest blogger on mypurchasingcenter.com. He is the author of Common Sense Purchasing, Common Sense Supply Management and Growing up Italian in the 50s. He is also the principal of his own management consulting firm, Apollo Solutions.
Mary K. Fischer earned her Master of Science in Nursing from the University of Miami Coral Gables, a Bachelor of Science in Nursing degree from the University of Wisconsin – Oshkosh and a RN Diploma from Mercy School of Nursing. Fischer has been active as a certified nurse midwife in the Fox Valley since 1985, and has served as a faculty at Marian since 2012.
Dr. Hammond’s interests include, understanding how species respond to and interact with stresses such as competition, predation, disease, and changing environmental conditions. These factors all have important consequences for human health. His research brings together the perspectives of behavioral, evolutionary, community, and disease ecology with ecotoxicology to address these questions from multiple angles.
His educational philosophy is to help students develop and refine their interests and skills in critical thinking, communication, and problem solving. Biology provides myriad opportunities to foster student curiosity through observation, posing questions, and conducting experiments. In his teaching, critical analysis and reasoning skills are emphasized by focusing on alternative hypothesis, experimental design, and actual experiments whenever possible. By teaching students the process of science and what science can and cannot say, we prepare them for a lifetime of informed decision-making.
David Hein is an Assistant Professor of Music at Marian University, where he directs the Marian Chamber Singers, coaches the vocal jazz ensemble, teaches music education courses and private voice lessons, and other music courses. He is the artistic director of the Fond du Lac Children’s Chorale. In nearby Sheboygan, he is organist and choir director at St. Paul United Church of Christ.
David earned a master of music in choral conducting at Michigan State University, and a bachelor of music in music education and church music at St. Olaf College. He has choral music arrangements published with Neil A. Kjos Music Publishers and Choristers Guild. Past positions include teaching choral music at the high school level as well as full-time church music ministry in Arizona and Iowa.
Amy Hennings has worked in the field of psychology and not-for-profits for more than 20 years. In addition to serving as a professor at Marian University in the psychology department, Hennings provides consulting services to various non-profit agencies in the Milwaukee and Chicago areas. Her human services work experience has included working with children, adolescents, and families with a variety of issues and backgrounds including HIV issues, homelessness, chemical dependency and domestic violence. Hennings has been very active with community advisory boards including Berry House (transitional housing for those with mental health issues), Lake County, IL Crisis Response Team, the SAFE Housing Advisory Board, the Lake County Homeless Coalition, the Lake County Advisory Planning Group, the HIV/AIDS Collar County Consortia and LAN 35(Local Area Network – Children’s Services). She graduated with a Master’s Degree in Psychological Counseling from St. Mary’s University in Minnesota. She is also currently a Licensed Clinical Professional Counselor in the state of Illinois. Hennings is currently pursuing her Doctor of Philosophy degree in Psychology, focusing on the retention and success of high-risk students and first-generation undergraduate students.
Katie Hughes earned her Master of Science in Nursing degree in psychiatric/mental health nursing and education from the University of Wisconsin – Madison in 2006, and her Bachelor of Science in Nursing from University of Wisconsin – Oshkosh in 2000. Hughes has served as a professor at Marian since 2005 in several roles, including as an academic advisor, clinical coordinator and assistant professor.
Sr. Donna Innes was called to membership in the Sister of St. Agnes serving in the ministry of education. Innes earned her Doctor of Philosophy degree from the Catholic University of America, a Master’s in Interdisciplinary Studies from the University of Dayton, and a Bachelor of Science in Education from Marian. As a Kellogg Fellow, Innes has traveled to Nicaragua, Mexico, Italy, Belgium, China, Taiwan, Japan, Russia, Israel, and other countries studying policies and structures for education, agriculture and healthcare. Innes also served as Curriculum Director for the Archdiocese of St. Paul and Minneapolis for eight years. Currently, Innes’ leadership responsibilities include serving as a leader in the School of Education at Marian, serving as a General Counselor for the Congregation of the Sisters of St. Agnes. She formerly served in several positions, including Assistant Provost, Dean of the Professional, Adult and Continuing Education at Marian, and in leading the NCATE accreditation process for Marian and for the University of Portland.
Leslie Jaber-Wilson holds a Master of Science in Social Work degree, and a Bachelor of Science in Social Work degree.
Leah Klapperich directs the art therapy program at Marian University. She is committed to the understanding that the creative process involved in the making of art is healing and life enhancing. This refers to not only visual art, but all of the arts, including music, poetry, drama, dance and movement.
As an educator, Klapperich strives to integrate the arts with academic excellence and creative process skills for the development of the whole person, mind, body and spirit.
Klapperich began an exploration of therapeutic arts while studying the relationship of the arts and human consciousness at John F. Kennedy University in Orinda, Cali. Specializing in the use of the mask as symbol and art form, she found that masks can “unmask” deeper understandings of ourselves, our common ancestry with each other and our connectedness with the natural world. Masks integrating natural materials and human awareness continue to be her art expression of choice and can be further viewed at www.4leahsart.com.
Mary Klein has served as a professor at Marian University for more than 25 years, and has been recognized for her excellence in undergraduate teaching and academic advising. Her classroom focus is on service learning and application of knowledge, and has taught a variety of classes in communication, leadership and theology. Currently, she teaches primarily in the organizational communication emphasis in the traditional undergraduate program as well as many of the leadership courses. She has also taught masters and doctoral courses.
Her research interests include leadership of effective volunteer organizations. She is currently working with other Communication faculty on a research project assessing intercultural development during classroom instruction in the subject matter. This research will be presented as the Top Paper in the Intercultural Communication Division at the Central States Communication Association convention. Klein lives in Cleveland, Wisconsin near the shores of Lake Michigan where she gardens and bikes. She is member of the Lakeshore Chorale, and serves on its board of directors. Also, she is a cantor for Holy Name of Jesus Parish in Sheboygan, Wis. In her spare time, Klein knits, plays guitar, and is an avid fan of the Milwaukee Brewers and the Green Bay Packers.
Christina Kubasta, Assistant Professor of English and Co-Director of the Honors Program, is originally from central Wisconsin. She completed her BA in English (writing) at Wells College and MFA in Creative Writing (poetry) at the University of Notre Dame. She teaches composition, creative writing, literature and cultural studies at Marian where her teaching and writing inspire each other. Her poetry appears regularly in journals, and she also writes reviews and columns about teaching, writing and reading. A Lovely Box won the 2014 Wisconsin Fellowship of Poets chapbook prize; her most recent book is All Beautiful & Useless(BlazeVOX, 2015).
Juliet Durdin earned a Master of Science in Higher Education from Drexel University and a Bachelor of Arts in Elementary Education from Northwestern Illinois University.
Janet McCord holds a Doctor of Philosophy degree from Boston University, and is a Fellow in Thanatology (FT), a credential awarded by the Association for Death Education and Counseling.
Under the direct supervision of Holocaust survivor and Nobel Peace Prize winner Elie Wiesel and UCLA Professor Emeritus Dr. Edwin S. Shneidman, she focused her doctoral dissertation on Holocaust survivor writers who killed themselves after the war, utilizing psychological pain theories of Dr. Shneidman to conduct literary psychological autopsies. Her doctoral work and her two mentors inspired her career trajectory as a lifelong suicidologist and thanatologist. She serves as a researcher with the United States Marine Corps Suicide Prevention Psychological Autopsy Project and was certified as a Psychological Autopsy Investigator by the American Association of Suicidology in 2013.
A Peace Corps volunteer in Zaire between 1983 and 1985, Dr. McCord returned to live in East Africa with her family from 1994 to 2000, and led student research teams to Brazil and Uganda between 1999 and 2005 to conduct qualitative research on health issues such as the impact of insurance for the poor and the use of insecticide treated bed nets to prevent malaria.
She serves on the Board and as President for the Association for Death Education and Counseling, and is co-director of research for the American Institute for Veteran Research and Policy (www.aivrp.org), a national independent think tank that researches the experiences of veteran reintegration in American society and is in process of creating a composite meta-narrative of these experiences. She serves on numerous local boards and committees including the Prevent Suicide Wisconsin Steering Committee, the Wisconsin Initiative for Stigma Elimination, Prevent Suicide Wisconsin, and the Fond du Lac County Mental Health Access Team, as the international work group on death, dying, and bereavement. She is a volunteer Horse Project Leader for the Calumet County 4-H.
Dr. McCord has been married to Michael J. McCord for 30 years. They have one daughter, Caitlyn, and live on five wooded acres in rural Wisconsin with their chickens, turkeys, geese, horses, goats, cat, honey bees and two border collies.
John Morris received his Doctor of Philosophy degree from the University of Washington in 1991, and his Bachelor of Science from the University of Minnesota in 1984; both degrees were in Chemical Engineering. Dr. Morris completed post-doctoral research at the Biological Process Technology Institute at the University of Minnesota. His dissertation and post-doctoral research involved protein separation for biochemical applications with focuses on precipitation and chromatography.
Dr. Morris entered the medical device field in 1993 working for Possis Medical, Inc. in Minneapolis, Minn. Over a period of nine years as an engineer, research manager, and consultant, he worked on the design, testing, and manufacturing of the AngioJet® Thrombectomy System. This device allows radiologists and cardiologists to quickly and safely remove blood clots from the circulation, such as in the case of heart attacks. John also worked for St. Jude Medical on devices used to correct coronary arrhythmias.
Dr. Morris moved to Fond du Lac with his wife and daughter in 2002. He made the jump to academia with the move and has taught classes in chemistry, biology, math, statistics and environment science at both Marian University and the University of Wisconsin – Fond du Lac. He is very passionate about his work with Marian University’s Social Justice Committee, which he has co-chaired for a number of years. In his free time, Morris enjoys singing and playing guitar, woodworking, biking and cross-country skiing.
Pat O’Connor is an alumna of Marian University, and has served as a faculty member for more than 30 years. In addition to her role as a professor of nursing, O’Connor has served as the Interim Chairperson of the School of Nursing, and Vice Chairperson of the School of Nursing. Currently, O’Connor teaches in the RN-MSN and Master of Science in Nursing programs.
In her spare time, O’Connor enjoys reading, gardening and watching old television programs and movies.
Passel’s clinical practice, teaching, service, and research have been directed towards decreasing stigmatization of the mentally ill by promoting public awareness and compassion.
The primary focus of Passel’s teaching philosophy is based upon a holistic approach which encourages caring and a healing presence, where she teaches students the connection between professional human compassion and tasks.
Passel is also a Board Certified Advanced Holistic Nurse and RYT-200 yoga instructor.
Prior to his current role as Dean of the School of Business, Dr. Jeffrey Reed served as Marian’s Director of the Management Program, Director of the Honors Program, Interim Director of Institutional Research, Faculty Senate President and Co-Executive Director of the Center for Spirituality and Leadership. He received the Underkofler Award for excellence in undergraduate teaching, and was a visiting professor at Harlaxton College in 2006.
Dr. Reed has served as Region IV Secretary of the International Assembly for Collegiate Business Education (IACBE), President of the Fond du Lac Area Human Resources Association, State Diversity Director for the Wisconsin State Council of SHRM, President of the Board of Open Circle Unitarian Universalist Fellowship, Small Group Facilitator, Treasurer and Registrar for the Mid-West Leadership School, President of Fond du Lac Morning Rotary Club and Assistant District Governor for District 6270 Area B of Rotary International.
Before moving to Wisconsin in 1998, Dr. Reed served as human resources and training consultant in Rochester, NY; as a software engineer, project manager and planner for digital products and product upgrades at Xerox Corporation; as Assistant Professor of Psychology at SUNY-Geneseo; and as a budget analyst for Kansas State University. Dr. Reed received training in Quality Processes, project management and teamwork at Xerox. He received his Doctor of Philosophy in Psychology from Kansas State University, a certificate in business from the Stern School of Business at New York University and a certificate in program evaluation from the Social & Demographic Research Institute at the University of Massachusetts – Amherst.
Karen Roberts earned her Master of Science in Nursing from Marian University in 2004, her Bachelor of Science in Nursing degree from Marian University in 1982, and is a Certified Nurse Educator (CNE). Roberts has been a nurse educator for more than eight years, and a registered nurse for more than 32 years, with experience in Medical/Surgical Nursing, Critical Care nursing, Post Anesthesia Care Unit, Preoperative Nursing and Endoscopy Nursing.
Patrick C. Saunders is a Green Bay native. He earned a bachelor’s degree from Ripon College in physical education. He received four varsity letters in football and was an All Midwest Conference selection in 1974 and 1975. Dr. Saunders received an MSE from UW-Superior in educational administration and later, an Ed.S. also from UW-Superior in educational administration. He earned an Ed.D. from Cardinal Stritch University in learning/leadership/service. Currently, Dr. Saunders is pursuing a MST from St. Norbert College in Theology.
Dr. Saunders spent 37 years in Wisconsin public education with the last 25 years serving as a district administrator. He has been married for 35 years with three wonderful children.
Dr. Saunders teaches across the masters and doctoral programs at Marian University. He holds a strong Christian faith and displays an active sense of humor. He has a passion for teaching emerging educational leaders and advocates personal responsibility and strong family values.
Lisa Schmidt has been with the School of Nursing and Health Professions as a full time professor since 2011 and as adjunct professor since 2008. She obtained her Master of Science in Nursing from Walden University, specializing in Nursing Education, and her Bachelor of Science in Nursing at Marian University. She currently teaches courses in Advanced Medical/Surgical, critical care clinicals at the senior nursing level and has taught Pharmacology. Her professional experience includes Emergency Nursing, Critical Care Nursing and has practiced as a Sexual Assault Nurses Examiner.
Schmidt is a member of the American Association of Critical Care Nurses, International Association of Forensic Nursing, the National League for Nursing and Sigma Theta Tau Honor Society.
She is certified in Critical Care Nursing and has received training as an End of Life Critical Care Instructor through the National End of Life Consortium/City of Hope.
When Schmidt is not facilitating learning at Marian University, she enjoys spending time with her husband and two children. She also continues as a staff RN in the Medical Intensive Care Unit and as a Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner within the Froedtert Health System.
Schuessler earned her Master of Business Administration in Finance, Investments and banking and her Bachelor of Arts in Economics from the University of Wisconsin – Madison. Schuessler began her career in investments with a large financial corporation and then took an instructor position in finance at Marquette University prior to coming to Marian University. In addition, Schuessler is a Certified Public Accountant and has worked in public accounting for many years.
Currently, Schuessler teaches economics and finance courses at Marian in the traditional undergraduate and the accelerated adult program, and serves as the Program Director for the Economics and Finance Department.
Away from work, Schuessler enjoys spending time with her family, which includes her husband and six children.
Sister Catherine grew up on an Illinois farm along with two brothers (twins) and a sister. Her favorite activity was “playing school”. Often, her siblings ran the other direction when she suggested “let’s play school”; so, she taught dolls and teddy bears!!
Throughout her elementary years, her teachers developed her love for reading and writing. She was often found with a book in hand and was very engaged in the writing process. She vividly remembers writing a story that had a “long winding wisteria vine.”
Catherine received her B.A. from the University of St. Francis. Once again, professors encouraged and deepened her love for learning.
After graduation, she taught for a year in a small Catholic elementary school. During this time she decided to respond to God’s call to enter the Springfield, Illinois Dominican Community.
As the years passed, she received her master’s in elementary education with a specialization in reading from the University of Illinois at Champaign. Her passion for learning took her next to the University of St. Thomas in St. Paul, MN, where she received an Educational Specialist degree in Educational Administration. Her educational journey continued as she attended the University of Sarasota (now Agrosy University) and received her Ed.D in Curriculum and Instruction.
While studying, she continued to teach at the elementary, junior high, and high school level. A few years were spent as a principal of elementary schools. Her passion and love for teaching deepened with each passing year.
After receiving her doctorate, she began teaching in teacher education programs at the college level. Here she combined her love for teaching with her love for writing.
Catherine has published numerous articles in the Religion Teacher Journal and has co-authored “Tools for Conflict Resolution” and authored “Enriching Faith: Lessons and Activities on Prayer and “Learning Centers: Saints.” Catherine has also presented at several national conferences on “Pre-Service Teachers Use of Skype to Develop Their Literature Circle Skills.”
Her current research interests include the effectiveness of mission integration personnel, enriching catechists’ instructional strategies and the effectiveness of teaching literacy in the content area.
Presently, Sister Catherine combines her love for teaching and writing; each day finds her embracing many opportunities to share her knowledge and passions with her students and she no longer has to “play school.”
Quintin E. Sullivan is an Associate Professor and chairperson of the Social Work Program. His primary teaching interest has always been research methods and an emphasis on the application of principles learned in class through authentic applied research studies, which is a meld of research and teaching that produces significant service to the community, University, and profession.
For more than two decades, his research agenda focused primarily on program evaluation in the child welfare area, presenting to national and international audiences, receiving several competitive grants, preparing numerous scholarly reports, and publishing several articles and other publications. While focusing primarily on program evaluation in the child welfare area, his research has demonstrated his broader interest in research methodology as he has collaborated with numerous colleagues and utilized a variety of research methodologies in diverse areas.
Building on extensive accreditation experience, he has served as a site visitor for the Council on Social Work Education since 2003. As a social work faculty member since 1989 and as a program director or department chair for the last 15 years, he has been extensively involved with accreditation reviews. As Baccalaureate Program Director at Illinois State University and Department Chair at the University of Wisconsin – Oshkosh, he directed and assisted in the reaccreditation of baccalaureate programs and the planning, implementation, and accreditation of two masters programs, one at each institution.
Dr. Sullivan joined the Marian University community in January 2013.
David Thompson was born in Detroit, Mich., and studied composition with James Waters and Walter Watson at Kent State University in Ohio, where he received his Doctor of Philosophy in music theory and composition. Dr. Thompson is presently the Chair of the Music Department at Marian University, where he teaches music theory, history, music administration, and American music. Dr. Thompson is the author of the book, “A History of Harmonic Theory in the United States,” and has been a guest lecturer on the topic of American piano music, under the auspices of the Wisconsin Humanities Council. Compositions include a one-act opera, “David and Bathsheba,” the “Symphony for Band,” a “Civil War Requiem,” and a “Magnificat” for choir brass and organ, not to mention numerous works for solo instruments and chamber ensembles.
Lance Urven earned his Doctor of Philosophy degree in genetics from the University of California Davis, a Master of Science from Western Illinois University in Zoology, and a Bachelor of Science in Ecology and Ethology from the University of Illinois.
Urven’s research interests include developmental and cell biology, and uses his experience to teach introductory courses in biology, genetics, biostatistics, biology seminar, and developmental biology. In addition, Urven has expanded his interests in germ cell migration to include undergraduate and graduate student projects on opossums, cattle and horses.
Through his master’s research, Urven documented the developmental stages of Betta splendens, the Siamese fighting fish, and used immunohistochemistry to study avian reproductive cells’ embryonic origin and migration in his doctoral work. Urven conducted post-doctoral research in molecular biology at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore and the Southwest Biomedical Research Foundation in San Antonio, where he worked on the transcriptome and epigenetic changes in mouse reproductive cells.
Dr. Wagner-Angell’s teaching specialties are composition, Romantic and Victorian literature, women’s literature, and drama. Her scholarship focuses on Victorian literature and pedagogical issues.
Deborah Watry earned her Doctor of Philosophy degree in Educational Administration from Marian University; her Superintendent, School Business Manager, Director of Instruction, Director of Pupil Services Licensure from Marian University; a Master of Education in Educational Administration from Marian University; and a Master of Education in Curriculum and Supervision and a Bachelor of Science in Language Arts from the University of Wisconsin – Oshkosh.